CRL Quiz 3 2008

1

Which one of the following diseases results from collagen mutations in bone?


  Ricketts.

  Osteoporosis.

  Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

  Paget's Disease.

  Osteosclerosis.

2

What is the major protein expressed by osteoblast precursors that stimulates osteoclast formation?


  OPG.

  RANK.

  RANKL.

  Calcitonin.

3

Which one of the following hormones inhibits bone resorption?


  PTH.

  TGFβ

  PTHrP.

  Calcitonin.

  1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

4

Which one of the following does NOT cause secondary hyperparathyroidism?


  Vitamin D deficiency.

  Parathyroid adenoma.

  Hypocalcemia of malignancy.

  Calcium sensing receptor mutations.

  Low level of calcium in the diet.

5

Which one of the following statements regarding the lateral ligament of the knee joint is correct?


  It attaches to the head of the tibia.

  It attaches to the lateral meniscus.

  It does not attach to the joint capsule.

  It has a rich blood supply.

6

Which one of the following statements regarding the posterior cruciate ligament is NOT CORRECT?


  It attaches to the posterior part of the tibia.

  It prevents the femur from sliding forwards on the tibia (especially in the flexed knee).

  It crosses the anterior cruciate ligament in the intercondylar notch.

  It has no nerve supply.

7

Which one of the following statements regarding the elbow joint is correct?


  The radial collateral ligament of the elbow joint attaches to the head of the radius.

  The annular ligament of the superior radio-ulnar joint attaches to the head of the radius.

  The elbow joint cavity does not communicate with that of the superior radio-ulnar joint.

  The olecranon process of the ulna tends to be displaced posteriorly in a dislocation of the elbow joint.

8

Which one of the following statements regarding dislocation of the patella is correct?


  The line of pull of quadriceps tends to prevent dislocation of the patella.

  The patella tends to dislocate medially.

  The lateral patellar retinaculum tends to prevent dislocation of the patella.

  Vastus medialis muscle tends to prevent dislocation of the patella.

9

Which one of the following anatomical structures is NOT located at the proximal end of the humerus?


  Lesser tubercle.

  Anatomical neck.

  Surgical neck.

  Medial epicondyle.

  Head.

10

Which one of the following muscles is NOT part of the rotator cuff?


  Subscapularis.

  Supraspinatus.

  Infraspinatus.

  Teres minor.

  Teres major.

11

Which one of the following statements about Extensor Carpi Ulnaris is correct?


  It arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus.

  It inserts into the pisiform bone.

  Its main action is extension and adduction (ulnar deviation) at the wrist.

  It is absent in 10% people.

12

Which one of the following statements regarding bone cell biology is correct?


  Histologically, osteoblasts are recognised by their staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

  Acid secreted by osteoclasts plays a major role in their ability to resorb bone.

  Osteocytes are osteoblasts that are no longer functional because they are buried deep in lacunae in bone.

  Cell to cell contact between osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors is not required for the formation of fully differentiated multinucleate osteoclasts.

13

Which one of the following statements regarding osteoporosis is NOT CORRECT?


  A deficiency of reproductive hormones is the commonest cause of osteoporosis.

  Corticosteroids may cause osteoporosis.

  Osteoporosis can be caused by an excessive production of parathyroid hormone.

  There is a deficiency of Vitamin D in osteoporosis.

14

Which one of the following statements regarding glucocorticoids is correct?


  Glucocorticoids bind to membrane receptors.

  Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis of prostanoids but not leukotrienes.

  Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis and activity of phospholipase.

  Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis of annexin 1.

15

Which one of the following statements about anti-inflammatory drugs is correct?


  Aspirin is a potent anti-inflammatory but lacks analgesic activity.

  Corticosteroids are not effective when taken orally.

  Most adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are caused by inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1).

  Allopurinol, by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, decreases the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines.