CRL Quiz 3 2005

1

When the elbow is flexed biceps brachii functions as a powerful:


  Flexor.

  Extensor.

  Supinator.

  Pronator.

2

Acting together Flexor Carpi Radialis and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis produce which movement at the wrist?


  Flexion.

  Extension.

  Adduction.

  Abduction.

3

Which one or more of the following statements regarding bone cell biology is/are correct?


  Histologically, osteoblasts are recognised by their staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

  Acid secreted by osteoclasts plays a major role in their ability to resorb bone.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  Osteocytes are osteoblasts that are no longer functional because they are buried deep in lacunae in bone.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  Cell to cell contact between osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors is a prerequisite for the formation of fully differentiated multinucleate osteoclasts. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

4

Which one or more of the following statements regarding bone formation is/are correct?


  Skull and jaw bones are formed through the process of endochondral ossification.

  Endochondral ossification refers to the formation of bone within a cartilage model

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  Increase in girth of long bones occurs through the process of endochondral ossification.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  Intramembranous ossification refers to the formation of bone directly on or within fibrous connective tissue. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

5

Which one or more of the following statements regarding 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D is/are correct?


  It is formed in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol.

  It is converted from 25 hydroxyvitamin D by the enzyme 1-alpha hydroxylase.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  It only acts on the gastrointestinal tract to increase calcium absorption.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  It is the most active metabolite of vitamin D. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

6

Which one or more of the following statements regarding osteoporosis is/are correct?


  A deficiency of reproductive hormones is the commonest cause of osteoporosis.

  Corticosteroids are useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  Osteoporosis can be caused by an excessive production of parathyroid hormone.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  There is a deficiency of Vitamin D in osteoporosis. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

7

Which one or more of the following statements regarding the elbow joint is/are correct?


  The radial collateral ligament of the elbow joint attaches to the head of the radius.

  The annular ligament of the superior radio-ulnar joint attaches to the head of the radius.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  The elbow joint cavity does not communicate with that of the superior radio-ulnar joint.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  The olecranon process of the ulna tends to be displaced posteriorly in a dislocation of the elbow joint. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.


Note that I have changed the answer to this question from C to D. The annular ligament loops AROUND the head of the radius without attaching, allowing the radius to rotate during pivoting. More recent quizzes are consistent with this.

8

Which one or more of the following statements regarding shoulder joint is/are correct?


  The capsule attaches to the anatomical neck above and laterally and to the surgical neck below and medially.

  The subscapular bursa communicates with the capsule.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  The coracohumeral ligament blends with the joint capsule.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  The subacromial bursa communicates with the joint capsule. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

9

Which one or more of the following statements regarding the hip joint is/are correct?


  The line of gravity of the body passes in front of the hip joint.

  The iliofemoral ligament is the main stabiliser anteriorly.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  The position of maximal stability at the hip is in flexion.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  The lunate surface of the acetabulum is articular and weight bearing. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

10

Which one or more of the following statements regarding the wrist joint is/are correct?


  The wrist joint is located between the distal radius and scaphoid and lunate carpal bones.

  Ulnar deviation at the wrist results from synergistic contraction of ulnar flexors and extensors.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  Some 'wrist' flexion and extension also occur at the midcarpal joints.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  The range of radial deviation at the wrist is greater than ulnar deviation. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

11

Which one or more of the following statements regarding the joints of the clavicle is/are correct?


  The presence of a disc at the sternoclavicular joint enables a different set of movements on each side of it.

  Rotation of the clavicle occurs at the sternoclavicular joint.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  There is normally an incomplete disc laterally at the acromioclavicular joint.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  The disc at the sternoclavicular joint is normally incomplete. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

12

Which one or more of the following statements regarding glucocorticoids is/are correct?


  Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

  Glucocorticoids are given locally (eg by intra-articular injection) where possible to limit the incidence of adverse effects.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis and activity of phospholipase.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  Glucocorticoids promote the repair of torn ligaments by increasing protein synthesis. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.


Note that I have changed the answer of this question from B to A. The 13.2 lecture synopsis clearly states that it is preferable to apply glucocorticoids locally where possible (e.g. by injection or inhalation) due to the severity of the adverse effects of long-term systemic administration.

13

Which one of the following about peripheral chemoreceptors is correct?


  They are located in the carotid bodies at the junction of the internal and external carotid arteries.

  They have a very low blood flow so are very sensitive to changes in blood oxygen.

  They primarily respond to hypercapnia.

  They mainly respond to haemoglobin oxygen saturation in the blood.

  They stimulate breathing in anaemia because oxygen content of the blood is reduced.

14

Which one or more of the following statements regarding the scaphoid bone is/are correct?


  The scaphoid bone is endangered in falls on the outstretched hand.

  The scaphoid bone may be palpated in the floor of the anatomical snuff box.

  If only 1 and 3 are correct.

  The proximal surface of the scaphoid bone is covered by articular cartilage.

  If only 2 and 4 are correct.

  A fracture of the scaphoid bone endangers the arterial supply to its proximal part. Answer A. If only 1, 2, and 3 are correct.

  If only 4 is correct.

  If all are correct.

15

When the pelvis tips downwards on the unsupported side in an abnormal gait pattern ('waddling gait') this can indicate weakness in which of the following muscles?


  Iliopsoas.

  Gluteus maximus.

  Gluteus medius.

  Sartorius.