HP4 Quiz 1 2009


In psychological medicine the term ‘cognition’ refers to

  intellectual abilities and other thinking skills, such as memory.

  thoughts and beliefs that can underpin behaviour.

  the examination of behavioural and affective components of patient-centred practice.

  both (a) and (b).


The theory of cognitive appraisal developed by Lazarus (1982) postulates that

  an emotional response leads a person to cognitively appraise a situation.

  cognitive appraisals directly influence an emotional or stress response.

  emotion and cognition are separate and independent systems but they can interact in some instances.

  emotions can either precede or follow cognitions depending on whether they activate phylogenically ‘old’ brain structures.


Sam is a 17 year old male who has been recently diagnosed with a phobia of cats. In a classical conditioning model of simple phobias

  the cat is the conditioned stimulus and fear is the conditioned response.

  the cat is the neutral stimulus and fear is the unconditioned response.

  the cat is the unconditioned stimulus and fear is the conditioned response.

  the cat is the conditioned stimulus and fear is the unconditioned response.


In a psychological approach to medicine, the ‘objective’ view of patient outcome refers to

  the way the patient perceives treatment outcome.

  an external set of standards being used by the patient to measure outcome.

  the doctor’s expectation of what constitutes a positive or negative treatment outcome.

  both (b) and (c).


Lucy is a 26 year old female who is presenting with symptoms of anxiety. In order to differentiate whether the anxiety is abnormal or adaptive, the clinician should

  only intervene if Lucy reports experiencing panic attacks.

  evaluate whether Lucy is also depressed as this may account for her high level of anxiety.

  consider whether Lucy’s response is out of proportion to the level of threat.

  expose Lucy to a feared stimulus and measure her heart rate as an indicator of sympathetic nervous system activity.


When considering how patient expectations mediate outcome, Mandler’s (1984) theory of anticipation suggests that

  previously generated schema influence expectations, and violation of these expectations leads to arousal and negative attributions.

  cognitive attribution of the level of threat influences whether a response is considered adaptive or abnormal.

  appraisal and attribution of expectations only occur if you have been in exactly the same situation previously.

  both (a) and (c).