CSGD Quiz 1 2007

1

Which ONE of the following is CORRECT?


  Wallerian Degeneration only occurs in response to demyelination.

  Wallerian Degeneration only occurs after the epineurium is severed.

  Wallerian Degeneration only occurs after an axon is severed.

  Wallerian Degeneration always occurs in response to nerve injuries.

  Wallerian Degeneration always occurs when blood vessels to nerves are compressed.

2

Which ONE of the following statements regarding the femoral nerve is CORRECT?


  It carries fibres from the anterior divisions of the ventral rami of L2, 3, 4.

  It is a branch of the sacral plexus.

  It gives cutaneous supply to the skin over the lateral side of the thigh.

  It gives motor supply to the components of quadriceps femoris.

  The saphenous nerve is a cutaneous branch supplying the lateral aspect of leg and foot.

3

After surgery to remove a tumour in the parotid gland the patient is noted post-operatively to have weakness of the facial muscles on that side. The structure most likely to have been damaged during surgery is


  The trigeminal nerve.

  The facial nerve.

  The retromandibular vein.

  The external carotid artery.

  None of the above.

4

A patient requires 2 mg of morphine per hour via intravenous infusion. You decide to convert him onto oral morphine as he can now eat and drink after his operation. You will prescribe 4 doses of oral morphine per day. What dose range of oral morphine will you prescribe for each dose?


  5-10mg.

  10-20mg.

  30-40mg.

  50-70mg.

  80-100mg.

5

Which ONE of the following is CORRECT? A hemisection on the left side of the spinal cord extending from segment C3 to segment C6 results in:


  An up-going plantar reflex (Babinski sign) on the right side.

  Increased tendon reflexes for the left biceps brachii.

  Decreased position sense at the right ankle.

  Decreased pain sensation from the left calf.

  Decreased temperature sensation from the left shoulder.

6

Which ONE of the following statements about pain is CORRECT?


  Multiple sclerosis does not affect pain sensation because the nociceptive fibres are unmyelinated.

  Hyperalgesia and allodynia only occur in regions of skin that are injured or damaged.

  Action potentials propagating backward down the axon into nociceptor terminals release glutamate.

  Glutamate released by nociceptor terminals in the dorsal horn activates AMPA type receptors but not NMDA type receptors.

  Enkephalin releasing interneurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord produce both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic inhibition.

7

Which ONE of the following statements about the structure of the brainstem is CORRECT?


  The medial lemniscus is located close to the midline in medulla, pons and midbrain.

  The trochlear nucleus (CNIV) is located at the same level of the brainstem as the inferior colliculus.

  The reticular formation consists of a mass of neurons on the most ventral aspect of the medulla.

  The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is closer to the midline, than the oculomotor nucleus (CNIII).

  The abducens nucleus is located on the most lateral side of the pons, well away from the midline.

8

Which ONE of the following statements about cranial nerves is CORRECT?


  The stapedius muscle (ear) is innervated by a branch of the trigeminal nerve.

  The nervus intermedius provides autonomic innervation to the parotid gland and lacrmial gland.

  The corneal blink reflex is mediated by motor and sensory branches of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal).

  The glossopharnygeal nerve (CNIX) mediates both taste and sensation from the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue.

  The tensor tympani (ear) is innervated by the motor branch of the seventh cranial nerve (facial nerve).

9

Which ONE of the following statements about the central nervous system is CORRECT?


  The cerebrospinal fluid flows through foramina in the third ventricle into the subarachnoid space and returns to the venous circulation via the superior sagittal sinus.

  The telencephalon includes the cerebral cortex, underlying white matter and basal ganglia but not the hippocampus and amygdala.

  Multiple sclerosis plaques usually appear as hyperintensities (bright) in T1 weighted MRI images.

  The lateral horns are present primarily in the grey matter of the lumbar cord and contain preganglionic neurons that project to the sympathetic ganglion.

  The circle of Willis provides a protective anastomosis between the left- and right- sided circulations and to a limited extent between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebro-basilar) circulations.

10

Which ONE of the following statements about the developing nervous system is CORRECT?


  In general precursor cells in the ventricular zone can produce both neurons and neuroglia.

  The growing tip of an axon is only guided by contact mediated and diffusible chemoattractant cues.

  The cerebral cortex forms in an "outside in" fashion, that in layer 2 forms first and layer 6 forms last.

  The refining of neural connections form the lateral geniculate nucleus to layer 4 of the cerebral cortex to form ocular dominance columns occurs prenatally.

  As brain development is entirely genetically controlled it is not open to environmental influences.