HP4 Lecture 10
Jean Piaget's first stage of cognitive development is the:
Bidirectional influence stage
Piaget's four stages in order are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Joanne emphasises that infants 'are sensorimotor beings'.
Urie Bronfenbrenner said "That's number one. First, last and always". He was referring to:
A child's requirement for a rich cognitive environment to develop normally
The need for an adult to be fully emotionally invested in a child, to the point of 'irrationality'
The overriding influence of individual differences on development
The importance of educating a child while their brain is in its 'growth spurt' stage
The need to establish foundational capabilities early in life
This relates to core concept 5: Human relationships are the building blocks of development.
Which ONE of the following statements about the newborn brain and senses is CORRECT?
Neocortical centers of the brain develop first
Vision is already relatively well developed
They prefer salty food
Infants are responsive to touch and pain but not temperature change
Infants can recognise the mother by her smell
A is incorrect: Subcortical areas develop first (governs states of consciousness, inborn reflexes, vital functions). B is incorrect: Vision is the least well developed of senses at birth. C is incorrect: They prefer sweet foods. D is incorrect: Infants respond to all three. E is correct.
Which of the following statements about infant development is INCORRECT?
Infants who develop more rapidly are not necessarily more intelligent
The sequence of nerve myelination is closely linked with developmental sequence
A growth-promoting relationship is characterised mainly by stimulation and reciprocity
Failure to thrive can refer to cessation of physical growtih without biological cause
Emotional impairments can result in physical impairments
Growth-promoting relationships are characterised by 'contingency and reciprocity', or 'action and interaction'.
Which of the following is NOT a 'core concept of development'?
The timing of interventions and onset of risks matters
Self-regulation is significant in all life domains
Transitions are important mediators of development
Interplay of sources of vulnerability & resilience shapes development
Culture is reflected in every aspect of development
This is a 'sub-aspect' of core concept 7: There are individual pathways of development.
Which ONE of the following statements about developmental risk and protective factors is INCORRECT?
Risk factors can be found 'within' the individual
Protective factors are positive experiences
Risk factors are those that increase the likelihood of an undesirable outcome
Community resources may act as a social environmental protective factor
Risk and protective factors are both cumulative and interactive
Protective factors may be negative, e.g. they may take the form of 'steeling' effects, whereby previous negative experiences encourage future resilience.