HP4 Lecture 10

1

Jean Piaget's first stage of cognitive development is the:


  Preoperational stage

  Prenatal stage

  Sociological stage

  Bidirectional influence stage

  Sensorimotor stage


Piaget's four stages in order are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Joanne emphasises that infants 'are sensorimotor beings'.

2

Urie Bronfenbrenner said "That's number one. First, last and always". He was referring to:


  A child's requirement for a rich cognitive environment to develop normally

  The need for an adult to be fully emotionally invested in a child, to the point of 'irrationality'

  The overriding influence of individual differences on development

  The importance of educating a child while their brain is in its 'growth spurt' stage

  The need to establish foundational capabilities early in life


This relates to core concept 5: Human relationships are the building blocks of development.

3

Which ONE of the following statements about the newborn brain and senses is CORRECT?


  Neocortical centers of the brain develop first

  Vision is already relatively well developed

  They prefer salty food

  Infants are responsive to touch and pain but not temperature change

  Infants can recognise the mother by her smell


A is incorrect: Subcortical areas develop first (governs states of consciousness, inborn reflexes, vital functions). B is incorrect: Vision is the least well developed of senses at birth. C is incorrect: They prefer sweet foods. D is incorrect: Infants respond to all three. E is correct.

4

Which of the following statements about infant development is INCORRECT?


  Infants who develop more rapidly are not necessarily more intelligent

  The sequence of nerve myelination is closely linked with developmental sequence

  A growth-promoting relationship is characterised mainly by stimulation and reciprocity

  Failure to thrive can refer to cessation of physical growtih without biological cause

  Emotional impairments can result in physical impairments


Growth-promoting relationships are characterised by 'contingency and reciprocity', or 'action and interaction'.

5

Which of the following is NOT a 'core concept of development'?


  The timing of interventions and onset of risks matters

  Self-regulation is significant in all life domains

  Transitions are important mediators of development

  Interplay of sources of vulnerability & resilience shapes development

  Culture is reflected in every aspect of development


This is a 'sub-aspect' of core concept 7: There are individual pathways of development.

6

Which ONE of the following statements about developmental risk and protective factors is INCORRECT?


  Risk factors can be found 'within' the individual

  Protective factors are positive experiences

  Risk factors are those that increase the likelihood of an undesirable outcome

  Community resources may act as a social environmental protective factor

  Risk and protective factors are both cumulative and interactive


Protective factors may be negative, e.g. they may take the form of 'steeling' effects, whereby previous negative experiences encourage future resilience.