CSGD Quiz 3 2010

1

Which ONE of the following statements is CORRECT?


  Patient H.M. had a lesion to the cerebellum which disrupted the formation of new memories.

  Long-term spatial memory is an example of non-declarative (implicit) memory.

  Long-term proliferation is the most commonly studied form of synaptic plasticity.

  Specific glutamate receptors have been implicated in synaptic plasticity in the mammalian cortex.

  NMDA receptor (CA1) knockout mice show improved spatial memory in the Morris water maze.

2

Which ONE of the following statements relating to the CNS depressant Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinal (Δ9-THC) is NOT CORRECT?


  Δ9-THC has analgesic activity.

  Δ9-THC increases appetite.

  Δ9-THC increases intraocular pressure.

  Δ9-THC increases heart rate.

  Δ9-THC has anti-emetic activity.

3

Which ONE of the following conditions is NOT associated with the use of benzodiazepines?


  Drowsiness.

  Confusion.

  Impaired coordination.

  Increased aggresion.

  Memory loss.

4

In regard to cognitive decline in older people, which ONE of the following statements is NOT CORRECT?


  A depressed person may be misdiagnosed with dementia.

  Neurofibrillary tangles are a feature of Alzheimer's disease but are also seen in healthy aged brains.

  In early or mid-stage Alzheimer's disease, the subject's MMSE score typically reduces by 3-5 points over 6 month intervals (MMSE=Mini-Mental State Examination).

  People with dementia are more susceptible to delirium that age-matched controls.

  Conscious state remains normal in the most forms of dementia.

5

Which ONE of the following features BEST DIFFERENTIATES between depression and dementia?


  Rapidity of onset of the disorder.

  Mini-Mental State Examination Score between 21 and 24 out of 30.

  Weight loss.

  Decreased attention to personal care.

  Loss of interest in activities.

6

When prescribing for an older person, which ONE of the following statements is CORRECT?


  Adverse drug reactions are 2 to 10 times more likely that in younger persons.

  Therapeutic drug level monitoring is usually unhelpful.

  Drugs affecting the central nervous system do not usually require dose adjustment.

  The loading dose of a drug generally needs to be increased.

  Only pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors need to be considered.

7

Homeobox (Hox) genes are critical regulators of rostro-caudal patterning in the embryo. Mutations in homeobox genes can lead to homeotic transformations. Which ONE of the following statements about Hox genes is CORRECT?


  Excess retinoic acid leads to loss of function of Hox genes as it reset Hox gene expression.

  Deletion of a set of Hox paralogs (eg. Hox 10) results in transformation of more caudal structures (eg. lumbar vertebrae) into more rostral structures (eg. thoracic vertebrae).

  Gain of function mutations of Hox genes results in transformation of more caudal structures (eg. lumbar vertebrae) into more rostral structures (eg. thoracic vertebrae).

  Homeotic mutations (eg. conversion of legs into antenna) only occur in Drosophila and not vertebrates, as these genes were discovered in flies.

  Hox genes are transcription factors and therefore function completely independently of growth factor signaling pathways.

8

Which ONE of the following statements is NOT CORRECT?


  Individuals with Down Syndrome have an increased risk of certain cardiovascular and gastrointestinal problems.

  The presence of only one X chromosome, in the absence of a second sex chromosome, results in Turner Syndrome.

  Edwards Syndrome is caused by trisomy 13.

  Familial adenomatous polyposis is caused by haploinsufficiency of the APC gene.

  Paternal unparental disomy of chromosome 11p is a cause of Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome.

9

Which ONE of the following agents is LEAST likely to be a potential teratogen?


  Valproic acid.

  Methotrexate.

  Alcohol.

  Folic acid.

  Nicotine.

10

Which ONE of the following statements is NOT CORRECT?


  All gene expression requires basal transcription factors to interact with RNA polymerase so that transcription can be initiated.

  Short tandem repeats are a type of microsatellite DNA.

  Heterochromatin refers to the dark bands seen when chromosomes are stained with Giemsa.

  Transcriptionally active chromatin contains hypoacetylated core histones.

  Generally, methylation of DNA in promoter regions results in gene silencing.