HP4 Lecture 5


Which of the following statements regarding executive function is INCORRECT?

  Executive function is a higher order process than both perception and sensation.

  It includes the cognitive process of hypothesis generation.

  Executive dysfunction may include signs of distractibility and hypergraphia.

  Executive dysfunction is a unitary disorder that does not always involve fontal lobe dysfunction.

  Restricted emotion is a negative symptom of executive dysfunction.

Executive function is NOT a unitary disorder because it may involve a spectrum of symptoms, i.e. a range of 'linked conditions'.


The Stroop test:

  primarily measures distractibility

  requires participants to read out words for 'non-matching' examples

  may be unlikely to pick up medial and orbitofrontal lesions

  will show a deficit in planning

  is also known as the Rey Complex Figure Test

Formal neuropsychological testing is most sensitive to dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex lesions. The other two are typically assessed using clinical judgement and history taking. A is incorrect because the Stroop test is primarily a measure of impulsivity and reaction time. B is incorrect because the participant is required to say the colour the word is written with, rather than the colour named by the word itself. D is incorrect: An example of tests for planning include the 'Tower of London' and RCFT. E is incorrect: The RCFT requires a participant to copy a drawn figure.


The frontal lobe:

  can be divided in several ways, one of which is according to its hypothalamic connections

  is responsible for sensory integration and higher level cognition.

  includes Brodmann's area 22 (Broca's area).

  has both afferent and efferent thalamic connections.

  comprises about 40% of brain volume.


Which ONE of the following statements statements about the frontal lobe is INCORRECT?

  It represents part of the 'third unit' of Luria's function systems of the brain.

  It is important for goal directed, purposeful behaviour.

  Is supplied by the middle and anterior cerebral arteries.

  It is divided primarily into three sections (dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and ventromedial).

  Its most posterior division, the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, is important for executive function.


Which ONE of the following statements about emotional intelligence is INCORRECT?

  It includes the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the use of this information to guide thinking and actions.

  It is distinct from intellectual ability.

  It undergoes a gradual process of maturation after birth, fully maturing at around 20 years of age.

  It is critical to managing, understanding, perceiving and managing thought with emotion.

  It is surprisingly understudied, given its strong association with executive function.


Which ONE of the following statements about the medial pre-frontal cortex is CORRECT?

  Lesions to the medial pre-frontal cortex may result in apathy and indifference.

  It is the division of the frontal lobe most important for executive function.

  It is supplied by the middle cerebral artery.

  Among the divisions of the frontal lobe, it is the most highly connected to the 'limbic' system.

  A patient displaying severe disinhibition is likely to have a lesion affecting this area.

B is incorrect: This is a feature of the DLPFC. C is incorrect: It is supplied by the anterior cerebral artery. D is incorrect: This is a feature of the orbitofrontal PFC. E is incorrect: This would be more characteristic of an orbitofrontal PFC lesion.