HP4 Lecture 3


Which of the following statements about 'core' emotions is CORRECT?

  Compex emotions can be thought of as derivates of a single core emotion.

  The set of core emotions sometimes differs between cultures.

  Core emotions are are thought to have arisen in early mammals.

  Core emotions develop slowly, with children achieving the full range of core emotions around age 5.

  Core emtions generally engage areas of the brain that evolved before the neocortex.


In the example of a patient who undergoes surgery to treat epilepsy, which of the would contribute MOST to their perception of treatment success?

  The severity of the patient's epilepsy before surgery.

  The patient's post-operative expectations.

  The patient's pre-operative affect.

  How the patient's social role changes as a result of the surgery.

  The cost of the operation.


Which of the following statements about treatment expections is CORRECT?

  Low expectations mean that a patient will always view the treatment outcome positively.

  Classical conditioning does not play a role in outcome mediated by expectations.

  The placebo effect refers to a patient's false belief that they are experiencing an improvement in response to an inert treatment.

  The effect of treatment expectations on outcome is a motivator behind the use of cohort studies.

  Expectations may result in the patient achieving a more realistic view of their illness.

D is incorrect because the placebo effect refers to actual improvement despite an inert treatment, mediated by patient expectations. E is correct because positive expectations may motivate the patient to gather information about their illness.


Which of the following statements about treatment expectations is INCORRECT?

  Treatment expectations act in concert with anxiety, sometimes resulting in reduced symptoms.

  An external locus of control is likely to produce behaviours that are adaptive to recovery and treatment success.

  Patients with more positive expectations tend to minimise unfavourable symptoms.

  Misattribution of symptoms due to expectations may extend beyond disease-specific symptoms.

  Treatment expectations may cause physiological changes via a variety of mechanisms.

An internal locus of control produces these behaviours.


The statement "patients' beliefs about their condition and about its treatment are highly predictive of emotional adjustment" may be attributed to:

  Johnston (1996)

  Zajonc (1984)

  Lazarus (1982)

  Machluda (1998)

  Yiend & Mackintosh (2005)


Mandler (1984) stated that human cognition is partly based on plans and schemata. In this model, a poor percieved outcome is BEST described as the result of:

  An arousal response and an interpretation leading to an emotion.

  A negative cognitive attribution of threat following an appraisal of discrepancy.

  A combination of 'arousal', cognitive appraisal and cognitive attribution leading to a negative emotion.

  A violation of expectations leading to a negative ancticipation of future events.

  A cognitive search for meaning and its resulting interpretation, leading to a positive emotion.